Top things to remember during Stone construction in 2022

Stone construction

Stone construction, also known as “masonry construction” is the most basic and one of the oldest methods of construction. It involves the use of locally available natural stone, and it has dominated over other methods since prehistoric times. Stone construction accounts for most of the surviving structures in that part of the world.

There are various types of stone construction. The three main types are dry masonry, ashlar masonry, and rubble stone.

Dry stone construction does not involve any mortar or cement or bonding agent like lime. This results in a building material that is heavy, stable, and durable. This Technology has existed since prehistoric times. Dry stone construction was used to build many of the world’s structures.

Ashlar masonry is the usual construction method used in most castles and cathedrals of medieval times. Ashlar masonry is like dry stone construction but with mortar binding the stones together except for the outermost row, which does not get a mortar joint. This results in a building material that is lighter and allows wider spaces between stones. This technology has existed since ancient times

Roughly dressed stonework also known as rubble work involves using roughly shaped stones laid in courses without any mortar or cement binding them together. The spaces between stones are filled by smaller or roughly shaped extra pieces called voids, made to fit into the gaps thus leaving no joints., It has been widely used from the earliest times due to its ease of use and speed of erection of Stone structures.

Various types of stones used for stone construction

There are a variety of stones that may be used in the construction industry, such as basalt, marble, limestone, sandstone, quartzite, travertine, slate, gneiss, laterite, and granite.

The stones required for building should be hardy and durable and free of weathered soft patches that cause reduced strength and durability. Quarrying from solid massive rocks yields stones for construction purposes.

Granite and gneiss are among the hardiest and durable stones. But these stones take a very long time to quarry as compared to other rocks. Limestone is easily weathered, but it can be treated with potassium compounds or quicklime to protect it from weathering.

Based on their characteristics, various types of stones are suitable for a variety of construction applications. Certain forms, such as basalt and granite, have excellent qualities including high compressive strength and endurance, which has to lead to their use in significant building projects.

However, gneiss is a stone with good characteristics (such as low compressive strength and the presence of harmful components in its constituents) that makes it appropriate for minor construction work, such as garden walls. As a result, stones are utilized both constructively and decoratively.

1. Granite

Granite is used in a variety of construction applications, including bridge piers, retaining walls, dams, curbstones, stone columns in concrete, ballast for railways, damp-proof course, and external cladding of buildings. Granite has a crystalline structure with fine to coarse grain. The color of the stone varies from black, dark gray to light brown. Granite is mostly made up of feldspar, quartz, and mica.

The name of the granite is derived from its peak hardness and durability, which makes it extremely difficult and resilient. From 100MPa to 250MPa, it has excellent compression strength. It also features a low absorption value, minimal porosity, good resistance to frost and weathering, but poor resistance to fire. Polishing is simple with this granite; the color ranges from light gray to pink. The polished granite may be used as tabletop tops or cladding for columns and walls.

2. Marble

Marble has exceptional resistance to weathering, consisting largely of calcite or dolomite with silica as an accessory mineral component. Because of impurities, marble can be found in a variety of hues. It was formerly used to build structures but is now more commonly utilized for decorative purposes owing to its high price compared with other stones.

3. Slate

Slate is used for roofs, slabs, and pavements because of its wide range of properties, which are dependent on the thickness of the sheets and the hue of the rock. It’s composed of quartz, mica, and clay minerals. Slab thicknesses range from 100MPa to 200MPa, and the color of slate can be dark gray, greenish-gray, purple-gray, or black. The fine grain structure of the slate causes it to have a specific gravity ranging from 2.6 to 2.7 kg/m3.

4. Limestone

Limestones are a poor choice for building construction. Unwanted varieties are high in clay or excessively soft, making them unsuitable for building projects. Dense, compact, and fine-textured types that are void of cavities and cracks may be easily dressed and polished to a very fine sheen.

5. Basalt

Basalt is also known as traps, is often used in road construction, aggregate in concrete production, bridge piers, river walls, and dams. The basalt stone structure is medium to fine-grained and compact.

Basalt stones can be compressed from 200MPa to 350Mpa, and their weight ranges from 18KN/m3 to 29KN/m3. Basalt is resistant to the elements, moistureproof, hard, and difficult to shape into intricate forms. The color of basalt may vary from dark gray to black.

6. Sandstone

It’s made up of quartz and feldspar, and it comes in a variety of hues including white, grey, red, buff, brown, yellow, and dark gray. The compressive strength ranges from 20MPa to 170MPa while the specific gravity varies between 1.85 and 2.7 (mPas). It should be noted that weathering sandstone makes it unsuitable for building construction.

Sandstones are used to make heavy structures, as well as masonry works, dams, bridge piers, and river walls. It’s also utilized in masonry construction.

7. Laterite

Laterite is used as building stone, but its outer surface needs to be plastered. It contains a high percentage of iron oxide and can be easily cut into blocks. Laterite occurs in soft and hard varieties and the compressive strength of laterite is between 1.9MPa and 2.3 MPa, and its strength is increased with seasoning. Laterite color may be brownish, red, yellow, brown, and grey.

8. Gneiss

Gneiss is a type of igneous rock that forms when molten magma cools below the earth’s surface. Gneiss ground up is used in landscaping because it contains undesirable elements that render it unsuitable for building construction.

However, hard varieties of gneiss stone can be utilized in building projects. The compression strength ranges from 50 to 200 MPa. It has fine to coarse grains and maybe light grey, pink, purple, greenish-gray, or black depending on the shade.

9. Conglomerate

Found principally in sedimentary rocks, it’s a broad category of coarse-grained clastic sedimentary rock composed of rounded fragments or “pebbles” of varying sizes and hardness, surrounded by a mantle of sandstone or shale.

The size ranges from 2mm to 64mm depending on the type of conglomerate rock. Compressive strength varies from 10MPa to 70 MPa, while its specific gravity can be 1.8 to 2.7 kg/m3. The color may range from white to yellow depending on the element composition and exposure to UV rays. A bedding plane separates the individual pebbles from one another at approximately 30 degrees off vertical and can create a weaker plane.

Stone Construction: The Materials and Techniques

The basic list of materials for dry stone construction begins with a decent range of stones. Rather than round, the stones should ideally be flat or angled.

The stones should be of various sizes, with some being quite huge. You may create dry stone without the use of tools like hammers and chisels, which are used to shape and cut it.

A string line, made of two large flat metal pins linked to a long rope, is another excellent tool. The builders may use the string line, which is set into the ground with the pins connected by a long strand stretched out tight between them, as a wall straightener.

The foundation is prepared by removing debris, little stones, and tree remnants. The ground must be smoothed after the rubble has been removed. Following that, the footing, or bottom layer of stones, is placed in place.

The foundation stones are the lowest, widest stones in the wall. They’re positioned flat side down to aid in the structure’s support.

Then the masons lay down the courses, which are horizontal layers that make up the wall’s body. They ensure that all stones in a given course are as level as possible.

During this step, stones are carefully positioned to ensure a tight fit. Some stones should be as big around as the wall and have visible ends on either side, perpendicular to the wall’s direction of travel.

The stones in a through-wall are called through stones and they’re critical to a solid wall’s stability. As each layer is built, small stones known as hearting are used to fill in any gaps. The sturdier the wall, the more tightly hearted the stones. For each course, the procedure is repeated.

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People Also Ask this question:

Which of the following is included in the cost of constructing a building?

Costs associated with structures include the purchase price as well as any closing fees, including back taxes paid by the buyer. Renovating an acquired property and making necessary repairs to make it suitable for usage are also considered part of the cost.

Conclusion:

Stone construction is one of the oldest manmade materials used for construction. Stone buildings are some of the oldest manmade structures on earth. It’s a way to keep our ancestors’ legacy alive. Some experts even theorize that stone age people were more advanced than we think, given their ability to build amazing structures with primitive tools.

A modern-day example of this is the dolmens of Spain, France, and Portugal. These are tombs built around 6000 BC by Neolithic people who had no metal tools! Since then, it has been used as both an art form and a functional building material for thousands of years all over the world! Stones continue to be popular for outdoor landscaping because they’re durable and can withstand heavy loads.

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